Decreased Risk of Heart Failure in Type II Diabetic Patients due to Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors

Frederick Wang Introduction.  Heart failure is a progressive disease resulting in inadequate blood flow and poor systemic nutrient exchange.  Alarmingly, the coexistence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure is extremely high, affecting 30-40% of patients, and is associated with higher heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular-related mortality.1,2 T2DM…
Cardiology

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Suppress Cartilage Degradation via A WNT5A-Dependent Mechanism: Implications for Osteoarthritis Therapy

Kenneth Sims IV Introduction.  Osteoarthritis (OA) is a “wear-and-tear” disease in which synovial joints, such as the knee or shoulder, degenerate over time. This disease can cause significant pain and immobility, and there is a need for therapy beyond symptomatic management.  Within the OA joint, chondrocytes lose the ability to…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Developments in Imaging Criteria for Ischemic Stroke Treatment

Ryan Nguyen Introduction. Ischemic strokes make up 85% of strokes and can be caused by thrombi.1 Tissue affected by ischemia can be categorized by probability of infarction. Penumbra is tissue likely to infarct but is still salvageable with timely intervention.1,2 Standard treatment for stroke is reperfusion therapy via tissue plasminogen…
Cardiology

Zika Virus: Combating Viral Innate Immune Defenses through Nonstructural Protein Inhibition

Nickolas Mundo Introduction. The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a Flavavirus that quickly spread across the Americas and Southeast Asia from 2014 to 20161. The virus spreads through mosquito vectors, sexual transmission, and transplacentally2. Vertical infection of infants can cause microcephaly, hepatitis, ventricularmegaly, and calcification of the cerebrum, while adults can…
Immunology Microbiology

The Role of T-Regulatory Cells on the Development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Peter Lin Introduction. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which circulating autoantibodies and immune complexes deposit, activating the compliment system and causing local inflammation and tissue destruction throughout the body1-2. SLE usually starts in late childhood to young adulthood, predominantly affecting females in reproductive years3. Dysfunction…
Immunology Inflammation

Mechanisms of ER Stress Regulation and the Role of ATF6 for Controlling Myocardial Interstitial Fibrosis in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Brendan D’Souza Introduction. The incidence of diabetes and associated mortality is increasing worldwide in both developed and developing countries, and the prevalence of heart failure in diabetic patients ranges from 19% to 26%.2-3 Patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy are usually asymptomatic before the disease progresses.3 However, MIF increases cross-linking with collagen,…
Cardiology

Hippo Signaling in Cardiac Remodeling

Mason Danna  Introduction. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally, and heart failure is a major component of cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality.1 Cardiac remodeling is molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury.2 Hippo…
Cardiology