MicroRNA-34a reduces the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Increases Chemosensitivity of Cancer Stem Cells by Downregulating the Notch1 Signaling

Celina Garcia-Brinker Introduction. This literature review focuses on breast cancer and more specifically how controlling/reducing cancer stem cells (CSC) can provide beneficial effects including limiting epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), which allows for metastasis, as well as increasing chemo-sensitivity 1,5. Cancer stem cells are a critical component of tumor maintenance, especially for progression,…
Cancer Stem Cells

IFN-γ/IDO Axis in the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Suppression of T-cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Morgan Cattoor  Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease driven by aberrant responses in both innate and adaptive immunity.1 Standard treatment consists of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and methotrexate.2  When these therapies fail, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer promise: by modulating the immune system, they…
Featured Abstracts Immunology Inflammation Stem Cells

The Role of the Microenvironment in Modulating Wnt/Beta-Catenin-Mediated Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation for the Treatment of Female Athlete Triad Syndrome

Megan Badejo  Introduction. The Female Athlete Triad Syndrome has hallmark conditions of caloric/dietary deficiency, functional amenorrhea, and low bone mineral density (BMD)1. Focusing on the low bone mineral density condition, the syndrome affects female athletes in any sport at any level2. The condition manifests as a metabolic imbalance caused by…
Stem Cells

The Role of Non Structural Protein 4A of Zika Virus in Suppressing the Akt-mTOR Pathway in Neural Stem Cells

Hannakate Hall Introduction: Zika Virus is a positive sense, single stranded RNA flavivirus that has attracted worldwide attention within the last 5 years for its transcontinental spread and ability to evoke devastating results within certain patient populations1. Zika is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes6, and is…
Microbiology Neuroscience Stem Cells

Emerging technologies for modulating mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation in tissue engineering constructs for use in spinal fusion procedures

Rahul Ghosh Introduction: Low-back pain, commonly associated with age-related degenerative disc disease (DDD), is a major healthcare burden in the United States with an estimated 60% – 90% lifetime prevalence 1. Spinal fusion is the standard of treatment for advanced stages of DDD that are unresponsive to physical therapy or…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Type I Diabetes Mellitus

William Shank Introduction. Type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells leading to chronic insufficient insulin production. Lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of these cells, along with circulating islet cell antibodies and anti-insulin antibodies are seen in T1D patients1,2. Treatment of T1D currently…
Endocrinology Immunology Stem Cells

Expression of Pdx-1 on Stem Cells Increases Pancreatic Beta Cell Regeneration in Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Radhika Shah Introduction. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the level of glucose in the blood cannot be maintained. Type I diabetes manifests as an autoimmune disorder, in which the patient’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. When these cells become deficient, insulin production…
Endocrinology Immunology Stem Cells

Evolving Utilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Delivery Scaffolds in Osteoarthritis

John Schmidt Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that causes pain, decreased range of motion, osteophyte formation, and aberrant bone remodeling in over 27 million adults in the United States alone1,2. Numerous interacting growth factors and inflammatory cytokines modulate the various pathways that lead to chondrocyte hypertrophy…
Immunology Orthopedics Stem Cells

Targeting Myocardiocyte Stem Cells For Tissue Mediation Following Myocardial Infarction

David Chapman Introduction: In the US, cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarctions (MI) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Approximately 790,0001 individuals in the US experience an MI annually, with over 100,000 of them resulting in death. Unfortunately, an MI is associated with lasting negative health implications, including irreversibly damaged…
Cardiology Stem Cells