The Role of Exosomes Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs) in the Regulation of the Wnt/beta-Catenin Pathway to Alleviate Osteoporosis by Promoting Osteogenesis

Manoj Ravichandran Introduction. Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic deterioration of bone tissue causing increased risks for fractures, deformities, and chronic pain.1,2 Approximately 200 million people suffer from osteoporosis worldwide, with an increasing prevalence in the aging population.3 The potential to use MSCs as a therapeutic option for osteoporosis is…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Fibrillar alpha-Synuclein Can Induce NLRP3-Inflammasome Activation in Parkinson Disease (PD)

Shivam Patel Introduction. Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, causing dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN).1,2,3 PD affects approximately 1-2% of the total population over the age of 60.3 Pathologically, PD involves misfolded aggregates of a-synuclein known as Lewy bodies.1 The decreased dopamine…
Inflammation Neuroscience Stem Cells

Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis By Altering Th17/Treg Ratio

Amisha Patel Introduction: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in the joints that negatively impacts bone constitution, mobility, and overall quality of life.1 The presence of helper T cells (Th17) cells, and downregulation of regulatory T cells (Treg) cells, in inflammation sites, is a prominent feature of Rheumatoid…
Immunology Inflammation Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes Target VEGF and BMP-2 Expression and Hippo Signaling Pathway to Treat Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

Morgan McAdams Introduction. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a bone lesion characterized by disruption of circulation, which leads to a decrease in bone growth and increased fat deposition.8 A lack of effective noninvasive treatments has led to the exploration of mesenchymal stem cell exosomes as a potential therapeutic tool.7-8…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Homing through the SDF-1/CXCR4 Axis and its Potential in Primary Osteoporosis Therapeutics

July Jost Introduction. Primary Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common bone disease worldwide and is characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis with a bone mineral density (BMD) 2.5 standard deviations below average1,2. This increases the risk for fracture development1,2. Declining levels of sex-steroids associated with menopause in women and…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles (MSC-EVs) in Promoting M2 Macrophage Polarization in Severe Cutaneous Burn Wounds Following MSC Treatment

Ian T. Bui Introduction. Severe cutaneous burn wound is classified as a third- or higher-degree full thickness burn that involves destruction of epidermis and dermis1. Macrophages influence all steps in wound healing through their phenotypic polarization: pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype2,3. Traditional treatments such as Early Excision and…
Stem Cells Wound Healing

Targeting the Crosstalk Between M2 Macrophages and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteoporosis: The Role of TGF-β and miRNA Mechanisms via Release of Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

Richard Feng Introduction. Osteoporosis affects over 200 million people worldwide and causes 8.9 million fractures annually.1 Osteoporosis is characterized by too much bone resorption by osteoclasts with decreased bone formation by osteoblasts.1 Macrophage and bone mesenchymal stem cell (bMSC) activity is important in the repair of fragility fractures caused by…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway as a Target for Treatment of Ischemic Brain Injury

Aditya Dutta Gupta Introduction. The treatment of traumatic brain injury through neural stem cell treatment has been heavily limited by the hostility of the transplantation microenvironment. The growth of NSCs is mediated by the three Wnt pathways, of which one is canonical and two are non-canonical.1 The canonical pathway focuses…
Neuroscience Stem Cells

Micro RNA-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Osteoblasts in Osteoporosis

John Burton Introduction. Osteoporosis is a major concern worldwide and can be attributed to a metabolic imbalance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption that increases bone fragility and fracture risk1. More than 75 million people are currently living with osteoporosis and many more have osteopenia2. There are many…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

The role of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) in promoting M2 macrophage polarization following MSC treatment of severe cutaneous burn wounds

Ian T. Bui Introduction. Severe cutaneous burn wound is classified as a third- or higher-degree full thickness burn that involves destruction of epidermis and dermis1. Macrophages influence all steps in wound healing through their phenotypic polarization: pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype2,3. Traditional treatments such as Early Excision and…
Immunology Stem Cells