Innate Immunity Inflammation: A Possible Cause of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and a Therapeutic Option

Cesar Carpio  Introduction: At the time of discharge it is reported that 41.4% of patients 60 years or older are subjected to Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) after noncardiac surgery.1 Clinical findings of POCD include disturbance of learning, memory, and processing of information even years post-surgery/anesthesia.2 Although rodent models seem to…
Inflammation Neuroscience

Exercise-Associated Myokines as Potential Therapeutics in Memory Decline Related to Alzheimer’s Disease

Daniel R Brophy  Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly and affects millions of people worldwide.1 Current research and understanding of Alzheimer’s pathology recognizes “the amyloid hypothesis” as the cellular and molecular basis of the disease. Specifically, amyloid-B oligomers (ABOs) contribute to synapse…
Neuroscience

The Role of Cannabis on Psychosis Through Interactions with COMT Val-Met and AKT1 Functional Polymorphisms

Elizabeth Battey Introduction. Psychosis is one of the top 15 major causes of disability and is characterized by hallucinations and delusions (positive symptoms), disorganized behavior, and cognitive dysfunction1,2. While it has been known that psychosis is hereditary, interactions between genes and environment are still being examined2. Cannabis is the most…
Neuroscience

The role of short chain fatty acids in alleviating anxiety by reducing gut corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRFR) expression and systemic inflammation

Lena Ayari Introduction. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the top causes of mental illness in the U.S., affecting around 3.1% of the population.1 Current pharmaceutical therapies are associated with unpleasant and potentially harmful side effects, and only around 45-55% of those affected achieve remission following treatment.1,2 Studies have…
Endocrinology Featured Abstracts Inflammation Neuroscience

Development of plasticity and long-term depression in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory due to chronic alcohol abuse

Alwin Alias  Introduction. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a psychiatric diagnosis that encompasses countless different manifestations of alcohol abuse2. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a clinically observable manifestation of AUD that initially presents with physical symptoms and chronically progresses to display severe cognitive deficits5. The hallmark sign used to diagnose this…
Neuroscience

Oxidative Stress as a Bridge Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Circadian Disturbances

Andrew Alexander Introduction.  Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world, provoking symptoms such as memory loss, cognitive impairment and disruption of circadian rhythms.1,2  AD entails the formation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau protein neurofibrillary tangles, both of which have been associated with oxidative stress,…
Neuroscience

The Metabolic Effect and Treatment of the Neuropeptide Oxytocin on the Comorbidity of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) and Alcohol use Disorder (AUD)

Mahdi Abdallah Introduction. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli and amygdala hyperreactivity and is highly co-morbid with alcohol use disorder (AUD).1 The relationship between the frequency of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse and PTSD showed a high lifetime prevalence on alcohol abuse.2 Studies have…
Neuroscience