Calorie Restriction Promotes Myelin Formation by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment

Pranav Gadangi Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to demyelination and neurodegeneration in nearly 200 patients per week1. The condition starts in a relapsing-remitting form for the first 10-15 years followed by a severe, progressive form that decreases life expectancy…
Featured Abstracts Neuroscience

PTK2-TBK1 Activation Impairs the Removal of TDP-43 Aggregates in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Lauren Fitzgerald  Introduction. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons and the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease.1 The mean age of onset is 55 years, and symptoms include denervation, muscle wasting, and weakness.2,3 Death from respiratory failure typically occurs 3-5 years…
Neuroscience

Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Regulatory Control of miR-153 on Nuclear Factor I A/B in the Pathogenesis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Lokeshwar S. Bhenderu Introduction: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term to describe the continuum of disorders due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)1,2. Estimates show that FASD affects 1.1 to 4.8% of school-aged children in the United States1. FASD leads to a range of clinical presentations from craniofacial…
Development Neuroscience

The Role of TREM2 in Microglial Activation, Phagocytic Function, and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Macy Zardeneta Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease, the sixth leading cause of death and most common, known cause of dementia, displays molecular hallmarks including neurotoxic amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles, resulting in brain atrophy, cognitive decline, and memory loss.1,2  Microglia, resident immune cells of the brain, have been noted to potentially…
Featured Abstracts Neuroscience

Neuroprotective Effects of Galantamine on Nerve Agent Toxicity and Damage

Andres Urrutia Introduction: Organophosphate (OP) based nerve agent weapons are a large concern in today’s geopolitical climate due to their lethality. Death from exposure is typically cardiac/respiratory arrest secondary to cholinergic over-stimulation which leads to parasympathomimetic symptoms1,2. However, for physicians, there is a significantly higher likelihood of running into OP…
Neuroscience

The Functional Role of Neuronal Transporter EAAT3 in the Pathogenesis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Neel Shah  Introduction. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by having recurrent unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to organized and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions)1-5. Even with a prevalence of 2%-3% in the worldwide population, up to 40% of patients report no response to first-line treatments of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors…
Neuroscience

Mutations in LRRK2 That Disrupt Autophagy Through the mTOR/ULK1 Pathway Increase the Risk of Familial Parkinson Disease

Paul Roby Introduction. Parkinson disease (PD) occurs in 1% of people over the age of 50 making it the second most common neurodegenerative disease1,2. PD involves death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and alpha-synuclein deposition leading to Lewy body formation1,2. Improvements in genetic testing have implicated…
Neuroscience