The Role of Gamma-Secretase Modulators in Reducing ß-amyloid Plaque Formation in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

Courtney Welch  Introduction.  Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, and the risk increases with age so that by age 85 some studies suggest that ∼50% of individuals will have the disease1,2. The pathological hallmarks of AD include the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT).  Senile plaques are composed of aggregates […]

Gastrointestinal therapies for augmenting treatment of autism spectrum disorder behaviors

Hasan Sumdani Introduction. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurological condition characterized by behavioral changes such as decreased sociality, limited range of interests, and repetitive behaviors. The etiology of ASD has a large genetic component, but environmental causes are being identified and explored more1. ASD is often associated with gastrointestinal (GI) issues such as diarrhea, […]

Alteration and Characterization of Exosomes in Preeclampsia

Marisa Pinson  Introduction.  Preeclampsia (PE) is defined by new onset hypertension and proteinuria by ≥20 weeks of gestation.1-4 PE occurs in 2-5% of pregnancies and is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality globally.1 Currently, the only treatment for PE is delivery of the placenta. The mechanisms behind the development of PE are still […]

Utilization of Stem Cell Therapy for Myocardial Repair Following Ischemic Damage

Virginia B. Neese Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries1. MIs account for up to 700,000 deaths annually in the United States2. Current management focuses on revascularization to prevent further damage, but no therapies are currently approved for restoring loss function or for replacing dead cardiomyocytes1,3. Cardiomyocytes […]

CRISPR-Cas9 as a means to treat immunodeficiency caused by HIV

Ryan Morris Introduction: CRISPR, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats, has stormed onto the scientific stage in a relatively short period of time and is at the forefront of gene-editing technology. Originally discovered as an adaptive immunity system against bacteriophages in Streptococcus pyrogenes, the CRISPR/Cas 9 system is now being used to tackle some of the […]

Emerging Technologies in Bone Repair and Spine Fusion: Stem Cell Strategies

Kathleen F. Lundquist  Introduction. Spondylolisthesis is defined as the forward slippage of a vertebra without rupture of the posterior arc, usually inducing lumbar canal stenosis with a prevalence estimated at 2.7% in males and 8.1% in females2. Spondylolisthesis is frequently treated via a spinal fusion surgical procedure if the degree of slippage is severe or […]

Cancer Killer: The Role of Amiloride Derivatives in the Selective Targeting and Killing of Breast Cancer Cells

Tanner Lines Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the third most common cancer worldwide behind lung and colon cancer1,2. Triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) represents 10-20% of all breast cancer cases and lacks the progesterone, estrogen, and HER2 receptors that serve as targets for breast cancer therapies, making their treatment more […]

LncRNA H19 functions as a decoy for multiple miRNA families to derepress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promote cancer progression.

Lyndon Lee Introduction: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in the acquisition of an invasive and treatment resistant phenotype in cancer, and is characterized by the loss epithelial characteristics.1-3 Mesenchymal characteristics include the gain of a leading/trailing edge, upregulation of mesenchymal markers and the formation of migratory protrusions.1-3 Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) promotes EMT, whereas […]

The Role of Altered Bacterial Gut Microbiota and Gut Mycobiota on Gastrointestinal Symptoms Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

John Hiett Introduction. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that includes social and communication impairments, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. Although the etiology of ASD in not completely known, a very strong genetic component has been identified.5 Compared to healthy controls, children and adults with ASD typically suffer from a wide variety of […]

Disruption of the host deubiquitinating enzyme, USP14, as a novel therapeutic strategy to combat Listeria monocytogenes infection

Kevin M. Claunch, M.S.  Introduction. The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a critical homeostatic pathway in mammalian cells that is triggered by ER dysfunction and subsequent accumulation of misfolded and damaged proteins1,7. Activation of the UPR is achieved through three transmembrane proteins, one of which is IRE-1, which catalyzes the splicing of X-box binding protein-1 […]