Future Use of Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering: Understanding How Mechanotransduction Modulates the Differentiation of Stem Cells

Eun Yoon Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of mortality in Western countries.1 Vascular endothelial injury may lead to the development of atherosclerosis. An immediate restoration of vascular endothelial lining is critical for the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular diseases.2,3 However, current solutions fail to achieve the desired reendothelization. Previous studies injected mesenchymal stem cells […]

The Role of a Dysfunctional Renin-Angiotensin System in the Development of Vascular Disease

Shohaib Virani Introduction.  Vascular disease is a broad array of disorders, including atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms and blood clotting disorders, which can ultimately be tied to a damaged endothelium2. Vascular disease is associated with currently associated with old age, diabetes, smoking, and uncontrolled hypertension4. However, there have been recent hypotheses that indicate that the […]

The Role of Estrogen in the Renin-Angiotensin Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Neha Ali  Introduction. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in men and women in the USA. However, the risk of developing CV disease increases among women following menopause5. With increasing life expectancy, women may spend more than three decades in this postmenopausal state, increasing the likelihood of metabolic diseases.5,6 Estrogen has a protective […]

The Effects of Proprotein Converase Subtilisin/kexin Type 9 Inhibition Beyond the Lowering of Blood Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

Jonathan Pirruccello Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States.1 The major risk factor for cardiovascular disease is elevated blood cholesterol, most notably low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).1,2 Statins are the current first-line therapy for hyperlipidemic patients, but carry adverse effects such as myalgia and rhabdomyolysis that tends to limit compliance to […]

Understanding the role of microRNA-1, 133a, and 22 in promoting pathological cardiac remodeling

Diem Q. Ngo Introduction. Cardiac remodeling is any structural changes in size, shape, and structure of the heart in response to increase cardiac stress. Cardiac remodeling can be seen in pathological conditions (e.g. heart failure) and show distinct characteristics such as fetal gene expression and myocyte apoptosis.1 Pathways involved in cardiac remodeling include the PI3K-Akt […]

The protective and reparative role of paracrine activity on mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair and angiogenesis in myocardial infarction

Christopher Morin  Introduction: Development of myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when a maturing plaque fissures and exposes its lipid rich core to components of circulating blood. The process ends with formation of an acute thrombus over the plaque with closure of the vessel1. Initially it was thought that cardiomyocytes were not able to divide and scars […]

Redox Preconditioning Promotes the Survival of Cardiac Stem Cells Under Oxidative Stress After Transplantation

Melanie Kwan Introduction: Survival of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) after transplantation is necessary to facilitate cardiac repair following damage to the heart due to their potential ability to regenerate cardiomyocytes. The current best estimate of post-transplantation survival of CSCs is only approximately 10%.1 The primary cause of transplanted CSC death is oxidative stress induced by […]

The Effect of the DASH Diet on the Development of Inflammation and Hypertension

Jonathan Knott Introduction: Hypertension remains one of the most important preventable causes of mortality world-wide. (1) It is estimated that more than 40% of persons greater than 25 years old have hypertension. The damage caused by long standing, uncontrolled hypertension can lead to a variety of serious complications including myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, left […]

Exercise Induced Changes on miRNA Expression and Its Effect on Cardiovascular Disease

Brittney Jackson Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the United States and consume a significant amount of healthcare expenditures8. It is well researched and known that gene expression patterns are substantially altered in cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure5. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that can target […]