The Role of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Hydrogels in Facilitating and Promoting Angiogenesis in Response to Ischemia

Kevin Varghese  Introduction. Ischemia is the blockage of arterial supply to live tissue, and prolonged ischemia leads to various types of tissue necrosis1,2, which occurs in response to the release of cytokines. Angiogenesis is a response to ischemia, which is the growth of new vasculature. This process helps replenish the…
Cardiology Stem Cells

Tissue Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) Post-Translational Modification of the Angiotensin II Receptor (AT1R) Plays a Role in the Pathogenesis of Essential Hypertension

Eric Swanson Introduction. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of stroke, disease burden and death worldwide (1) In the United States, it affects 46% of adults and it is estimated that 13-17% of adults with HTN have uncontrolled or resistant HTN (1).  Due to the underlying heterogeneity in the pathogenesis…
Cardiology Featured Abstracts

Lymphangiogenesis via VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 Pathway Following Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury due to Myocardial Infarction

Melanie L. Painter Introduction. Myocardial infarction results from insufficient blood flow to the heart. Endogenous lymphangiogenesis is initiated after myocardial infarction and serves a protective role against the development of heart failure by reducing inflammation and edema.3 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF Receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) both increase…
Cardiology

Macrophage Polarization and Renal Migration in the Etiology of Hypertension

Chris Ortigoza Introduction. Heart disease is the greatest cause of death in the United States.1 Hypertension represents the most important modifiable risk factor implicated in heart disease,2 representing a major risk factor in coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy3, heart failure, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage and chronic end-stage renal disease.3…
Cardiology

Altered Synthesis of Hydrogen Sulfide Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Renovascular Hypertension

Clarence Lim Introduction. Renovascular hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure greater than 130 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure greater than 80 mmHg with renovascular etiologies7. Renovascular hypertension accounts for approximately 3% of cases in unselected hypertensive patients7. Altered metabolism is a key cause in hypertension5,6,8,9. Studies have…
Cardiology

Pathogenesis of how IL-17A produced by CD4+ T helper 17 cells result in renal and vascular dysfunction and augment angiotensin II induced hypertension

Adiba Hasnat Introduction.  Angiotensin II hypertension is strongly linked to the immune system since many of the detrimental effects are caused by the inflammatory response mediated by immune cells such as Th17 cells7. Th17 have been shown to augment and not just be a secondary response to hypertension by promoting…
Cardiology Immunology