Role of Matrix Metalloproteases (MMP) Inhibitors in Decreasing Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulation of Inflammatory Response during Ischemic Stroke

Ashmi Patel Introduction. Stroke outco me is dependent on several factors including the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs).2  In ischemia, MMP-2 and MMP-9 degrade claudin-5, which facilitates the increased permeability of the BBB and decrease in tight junction proteins (TJPs).2  MMP-9 cleaves ZO-1 and degrades…
Cardiology Inflammation

Role of the Tumor Suppressor Gene p53 in Pathogenesis of Maladaptive Cardiac Hypertrophy Following a Pressure-Overloaded State

Amelia Khoo Introduction.  Heart disease and its resulting pathology is the leading cause of death worldwide.1 Cardiovascular mortality can result from overwork of tissue following pressure-overloaded states such as chronic systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and aortic stenosis.  Two of the manifestations of  these disease states are maladaptive hypertrophy of the…
Cardiology

Decreased Risk of Heart Failure in Type II Diabetic Patients due to Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors

Frederick Wang Introduction.  Heart failure is a progressive disease resulting in inadequate blood flow and poor systemic nutrient exchange.  Alarmingly, the coexistence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure is extremely high, affecting 30-40% of patients, and is associated with higher heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular-related mortality.1,2 T2DM…
Cardiology

Developments in Imaging Criteria for Ischemic Stroke Treatment

Ryan Nguyen Introduction. Ischemic strokes make up 85% of strokes and can be caused by thrombi.1 Tissue affected by ischemia can be categorized by probability of infarction. Penumbra is tissue likely to infarct but is still salvageable with timely intervention.1,2 Standard treatment for stroke is reperfusion therapy via tissue plasminogen…
Cardiology

Mechanisms of ER Stress Regulation and the Role of ATF6 for Controlling Myocardial Interstitial Fibrosis in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Brendan D’Souza Introduction. The incidence of diabetes and associated mortality is increasing worldwide in both developed and developing countries, and the prevalence of heart failure in diabetic patients ranges from 19% to 26%.2-3 Patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy are usually asymptomatic before the disease progresses.3 However, MIF increases cross-linking with collagen,…
Cardiology

Hippo Signaling in Cardiac Remodeling

Mason Danna  Introduction. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally, and heart failure is a major component of cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality.1 Cardiac remodeling is molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury.2 Hippo…
Cardiology

Elucidating Mechanisms Underlying MicroRNA as a Biomarker and Therapeutic Target in Strokes

Antara Dattagupta Introduction: Stroke is one of the leading causes of adult mortality and disability worldwide.1 During ischemic stroke, neurons are deprived of oxygen and energy and their normal metabolic substrates stop functioning in seconds displaying signs of structural injury after only two minutes.2 MiRNA are post- transcriptional regulators that…
Cardiology Featured Abstracts