Zika Virus: Combating Viral Innate Immune Defenses through Nonstructural Protein Inhibition

Nickolas Mundo Introduction. The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a Flavavirus that quickly spread across the Americas and Southeast Asia from 2014 to 20161. The virus spreads through mosquito vectors, sexual transmission, and transplacentally2. Vertical infection of infants can cause microcephaly, hepatitis, ventricularmegaly, and calcification of the cerebrum, while adults can…
Immunology Microbiology

The Role of H. pylori in the Progression of Gastric Cancer Through Activation of the JAK/STAT Pathway and Sequential Inflammatory Response Elements

Sanjana Nayak Introduction. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the world, with the rate of incidence still high in East Asia1. H. pylori infection is the main risk factor, with the likelihood for infection increasing with greater age, higher BMI, and male sex2,3,4. H.…
Cancer Inflammation Microbiology

The Role of Mast Cell-Mediated Inflammation on IBS-Induced Abdominal Pain

Pavia Ann Muringathuparambil Introduction: IBS is a gastrointestinal disease triggered by many factors. Symptoms vary greatly between patients, but abdominal pain and bloating are most common. While a specific cause has yet to be identified, many factors including gene mutations1,2, gut microbiome imbalances3, and mast cell hyperplasia4 are being investigated…
Inflammation Microbiology

The Role of Vitamin D in Reducing Campylobacter jejuni-Induced Colonic Epithelial Apoptosis and Inflammation

Christian Encarnacion  Introduction. Human Campylobacter jejuni infections comprises most bacterial gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide1,2. C. jejuni transmissions are primarily foodborne and sequelae of C. jejuni campylobacteriosis also result in autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome1,2. Studies have shown that C. jejuni promotes proinflammatory cytokines that result in debilitating changes to the…
Inflammation Microbiology

Green Tea Extract Dietary Therapy Protection Against Dysbiotic Microbiota Induced Metabolic Endotoxemia through Increased Intestinal Barrier Function, Decreased Endotoxin Translocation, and Decreased Chronic Inflammation

Sreeya Cherlo Introduction. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the gut microbial community, and consequent lymphatic inflammation are associated with the development of a multitude of diseases.1 Metabolic Endotoxemia is caused by the presence of endotoxins in the blood which are derived from gram-negative bacteria included in dysbiotic gut microbiota.1 The translocation…
Inflammation Microbiology

Herpes simplex virus type 1 contributes to Alzheimer’s disease by preventing regulation of formation and destruction of Aβ amyloid plaques.

Candice Hill Introduction. Over 25 million people in the world are affected by dementia, most suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an accumulation of Aβ amyloid3. However, what triggers this Aβ accumulation has yet to be clearly defined. In this commentary, herpes simplex virus type…
Featured Abstracts Microbiology Neuroscience

The Effect of Dietary Products in Combination with Gut Microbes That Enable Localized Generation of SCFA on Histone Modifications and the Pathogenesis of Colon Cancer

Michael Buchholz Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common cause of cancer worldwide, with a 10x higher incidence in Western countries1. CRC is, however, increasing in some Asian countries as they shift to a Western diet2. A high fiber diet (HFD) is associated with decreased incidence of CRC3.…
Cancer Microbiology

Propionic Acid Metabolite of Gut Microbiome Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Chad Griesbach Introduction. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. The prevalence of ASD has dramatically increased recently, rising from 4.5 in 10,000 in 1966, to 1 in 68 children aged eight years in 20106. Gastrointestinal comorbidities are common…
Microbiology Neuroscience