The Role of Circadian Clock Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Faraz Damghani Introduction. The suprachiasmatic nucleus controls the circadian rhythm of the body and disruptions of this rhythm has been linked to breast cancers. Breast cancer accounts for 25% of cancers which affect women, making it the most common malignancy in females worldwide. Based on different phenotypes, breast cancer can be divided into two main […]

Ang-2 and VEGF Inhibition alters tumor associated macrophages and normalizes tumor vasculature in glioblastoma

Tejaswini Reddy  Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and the current standard of treatment of care is surgical resection of tumor(s) followed by external beam irradiation and taking cytotoxic agent temozolomide orally [1-6]. However, many tumors develop resistance to temozolomide, which is why targeted therapies such as a […]

Melatonin inhibits estrogen production in ERα+ breast cancer associated fibroblasts and counteracts tamoxifen resistance

Nishah Panchani Introduction: Approximately 12.4% of women will develop breast cancer during their lifetime[1].  Furthermore, 70% of all breast cancers are known to be caused by increased receptor-estrogen interaction (ER+)[2]. Studies have hypothesized that the proliferation promoting estrogen is produced by breast adipose fibroblasts (BAF) in postmenopausal women, the cohort with the highest rate of […]

Current immunotherapy progress in treating melanoma: a deeper look into the efficacy of Ipilimumab, Pembrolizumab and emerging combination therapies

Yi-Hsien Yeh Introduction. Cancer cells evade immune cell recognition via expressing receptor such as PD-L1 on cell surface1,2. Agents activating immune defense and overcoming immunosuppression have been shown as promising immunotherapeutic strategies against drug resistant cancers, such as melanoma3.  For example, Ipilimumab, an anti–CTLA-4 antibody, has been FDP-approved as a treatment for advanced melanoma based […]

The Role of MicroRNA-21 in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer

Kirk Tran  Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortalities worldwide1. The pathogenesis of CRC is a multifactorial progression with accumulating genetic mutations and changes in expression levels of microRNAs2. While studies have shown microRNA-21 (miR-21) to be upregulated in CRC, the exact molecular role of miR-21 in the post-transcriptional […]

The use of ketones as an adjunctive metabolic therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

P. Ryan Tacon  Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive central nervous system tumor, often developing as a primary tumor from de novo mutations. GBM is the most common, and most life-threatening of brain tumors seen in practice, and treatment is often palliative due to high mutation rates and chemotherapy resistance in tumor populations1,2. Studies […]