Utilizing Regulatory T Cells in the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Type I

Alexander Sanders  Introduction. Type I Diabetes Mellitus is a multifactorial autoimmune disease that targets and destroys pancreatic islet cells which produce insulin. It is most often diagnoses during childhood and affects millions of people around the world. While much is known about the disease and how to treat it, significant research is still needed on […]

Current immunotherapy progress in treating melanoma: a deeper look into the efficacy of Ipilimumab, Pembrolizumab and emerging combination therapies

Yi-Hsien Yeh Introduction. Cancer cells evade immune cell recognition via expressing receptor such as PD-L1 on cell surface1,2. Agents activating immune defense and overcoming immunosuppression have been shown as promising immunotherapeutic strategies against drug resistant cancers, such as melanoma3.  For example, Ipilimumab, an anti–CTLA-4 antibody, has been FDP-approved as a treatment for advanced melanoma based […]

Lentiviral-vector hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy as an effective and clinically safe treatment for patients with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

Dixita Viswanath Introduction.  Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a severe primary immunodeficiency caused by a mutation in WAS-protein (WASp) which regulates actin polymerization and cytoskeleton reorganization in cytotoxic hematopoietic immune cells1.WAS presents in early infancy and often progresses to autoimmune disorders suggesting a critical role of WASp in immune tolerance1. Specifically, dendritic cells (DC), which begin […]

The role of metabolic determinism and T-cell subtype differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis and its therapeutic implications

Lyndsey Strowd  Introduction. Compared to healthy subjects, patients with rheumatoid arthritis have characteristically excessive G6PD activity which generates an overabundance of reducing elements leading to an over usage of ROS. This depletion of ROS is found to be correlated with insufficient ATM activation further leading to a RA T cell bypass of G2/M checkpoint in […]

The Use of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Cecil Staples Introduction. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease responsible for attacking myelinated sheaths of axons in the CNS.1 This T cell mediated inflammatory disease currently does not have a known causative agent, but is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.1,2 While T Helper Type 1 cells (Th1) […]

CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene therapy in the treatment of X linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (XSCID)

Sehar Salman Introduction: X Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (XSCID) presents as a severe, and sometimes complete, lack of T cells, consequently resulting in B cell defects, and leading to a combined immune deficiency. It is often caused by a single genetic mutation and affects about 1 in 50,000 newborns6 who face high likelihood of death […]

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Editing Strategies in the Treatment of Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Graham Rector Introduction: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare congenital disorder affecting 1 in every 250,000 children born in the United States1. The disorder is caused by a defect in the phagocytic breakdown pathway, most commonly caused by mutations in genes coding for subunits of leukocyte NADPH Oxidase1-2. The most common mutations are found […]

The Role of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells on the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Jessica Quach  Introduction. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system produces autoantibodies against its own cells and tissues, resulting in inflammation and organ damage1. SLE affects anywhere from 40 to 200 individuals per 100,0002. To date, SLE treatment primarily includes the use of nonspecific immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory […]

Manipulation of the Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Infants May Influence the Development of Autism and Other Psychological Disorders

Britton Eastburn Introduction Neuroactive compounds produced by the normal microbiota colonizing the human gut have been found to directly influence a range of neurological and behavioral parameters such as mood, cognition, sleep, and appetite1, 2. Indeed, therapeutic manipulation of the microbiome using probiotics, for example, has proven successful in relieving symptoms associated with these parameters, […]