Manipulation of the Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Infants May Influence the Development of Autism and Other Psychological Disorders

Britton Eastburn Introduction Neuroactive compounds produced by the normal microbiota colonizing the human gut have been found to directly influence a range of neurological and behavioral parameters such as mood, cognition, sleep, and appetite1, 2. Indeed, therapeutic manipulation of the microbiome using probiotics, for example, has proven successful in relieving symptoms associated with these parameters, […]

Induction of regulatory T-cells to treat Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Gina Do Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease where the host’s immune system attacks pancreatic β-cells, causing insufficient insulin production and, therefore, hyperglycemia1. Symptomatic progression of T1D often occurs during childhood and adolescence, with new diagnoses estimated at almost 90,000 children annually worldwide1. There is no absolute cure but treatment currently […]

Exploring the role of inflammation in colorectal carcinogenesis, and the use of Fc receptor-targeted therapies to target inflammation-mediated cancer development

Rihin Chavda Introduction: It is well established that inflammation is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Pathology of acute and chronic inflammation contribute to genomic damage and promotion of cancer (7). Fc therapy has been exploited in many forms of cancers to deliver immunoconjugates that deliver the toxin or radioisotope readily. The delivery of anti-inflammation Fc […]

Blocking immunosuppressive molecules, PD-1 and CTLA-4, as an anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategy

Cherry Chau Introduction. Cancer immunotherapy has sometimes been referred to as the “holy grail of oncology” because it activates the patient’s own immune system to kill cancer cells. PD-1 and CTLA-4 have long been identified as potential targets for immunotherapy.1 They are receptors that downregulate T-cell activity to “turn off” the immune system after an […]

Using CRISPR Cas9 Gene Editing to Generate CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor) T-Cells for Immunotherapeutic Treatment of Leukemia

Jeffrey Cao Background: Leukemia is a cancer in which blood-forming tissues like bone marrow generate high numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes, suppressing the production of normal blood cells. Like most cancers, malignant cells in leukemia exhibit immune evasion and resist checkpoint inhibition, which pose challenges to therapy. To overcome this, CRISPR Cas9-gene editing is […]

Changing the Future Medicine with Precise Gene Editing: The Role of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Therapy in treating Primary Immunodeficiencies

Elizabeth Andrews Introduction. Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are commonly caused by point mutations and indels that cause defects in immune development and function, predisposing the body to various infections and secondary diseases]. It is estimated that the prevalence of PID is about 1:100,000 3. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are excellent […]

Combinatorial blocking of immunosuppressive molecules, PD1 and CTLA4 as an anti-melanoma immunotherapeutic strategy

Georgina Kolcun Immune checkpoint blockade has proved to be an auspicious therapeutic strategy in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Immune checkpoints are points at which the immune system may either stimulate or inhibit its immune response. The immune system may feel the need to heighten its response at the threat of foreign molecules and in […]

CRISPR-Cas9 as a means to treat immunodeficiency caused by HIV

Ryan Morris Introduction: CRISPR, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats, has stormed onto the scientific stage in a relatively short period of time and is at the forefront of gene-editing technology. Originally discovered as an adaptive immunity system against bacteriophages in Streptococcus pyrogenes, the CRISPR/Cas 9 system is now being used to tackle some of the […]

Mobilizing Regulatory T Cells Against Type I Diabetes

Robert Leonard Introduction: Type I diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease where self-reactive T cells damage insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells resulting in hyperglycemia1. The etiology is unclear but evidence suggests it arises from an environmental trigger with genetic predisposition1. Treatment of T1D, although advancing, still consists of insulin replacement therapy in the face of […]