The Role of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy in Treatment of Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis by Immunomodulating the Treg and Th17 Balance

Dariusz Mrugala Introduction.  Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease which primarily affects the distal articular joints, and especially the hands.1  The interaction of heritable risk factors like HLA-DR04, and environmental risk factors such as smoking, promote a loss of immune tolerance for self-antigens which leads to immune…
Immunology Stem Cells

Zika Virus: Combating Viral Innate Immune Defenses through Nonstructural Protein Inhibition

Nickolas Mundo Introduction. The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a Flavavirus that quickly spread across the Americas and Southeast Asia from 2014 to 20161. The virus spreads through mosquito vectors, sexual transmission, and transplacentally2. Vertical infection of infants can cause microcephaly, hepatitis, ventricularmegaly, and calcification of the cerebrum, while adults can…
Immunology Microbiology

The Role of T-Regulatory Cells on the Development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Peter Lin Introduction. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which circulating autoantibodies and immune complexes deposit, activating the compliment system and causing local inflammation and tissue destruction throughout the body1-2. SLE usually starts in late childhood to young adulthood, predominantly affecting females in reproductive years3. Dysfunction…
Immunology Inflammation

Role of P2RY12 Microglial Homeostatic Marker in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Multiple Sclerosis

Peter Park Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination of CNS axons.1 Current literature disagrees on the exact immune pathophysiology progression of MS, but evidence shows cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, specifically microglial cells…
Immunology Neuroscience

The Immunosuppressive Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Through Induction of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via FLT3L

Sabina Norova  Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder occurring in 20-150 cases per 100,000 population.1 SLE is increasingly prevalent in people of African ancestry and it usually affects women of reproductive age, with a female-to-male ratio being 9:1.1 In SLE, all pathways lead to production of endogenous…
Immunology Stem Cells

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) as a Therapeutic Target in the Progression of Atherosclerosis

Ana Hurtado Introduction.  Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of arterial walls that involves the activation of CD4+ T cells. These proinflammatory T cells then contribute to the inflammatory state secreting cytokines that result in increased lipid accumulation and intimal thickening. CD4+ T cells are therefore an important contributor to atherosclerotic…
Cardiology Immunology

The Role of Short Chain Fatty Acids on Fetal Immune System Development in Pre-eclampsia

Alexandra De Jong  Introduction. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common pregnancy disorder and is defined by hypertension developing at or after 20 weeks’ gestation and is accompanied by one or more of the following: proteinuria, maternal organ dysfunction, or uteroplacental dysfunction.1 Pre-eclampsia has a maternal mortality of 15% in developing countries…
Featured Abstracts Immunology

The Role of TIGIT as a Checkpoint for Cytotoxic Effector Cells in Melanoma Immunotherapy

Jennifer Bryan Introduction. Despite prevention and early detection efforts, melanoma incident rates, mortality, and morbidity remain high.1 One method of treatment is immunotherapy, which stimulates the body’s own immune system to defend against cancer. An important component to that immune response is cytotoxic effector cells, including natural killer (NK) and…
Featured Abstracts Immunology