The Inhibition of PD-L1 Glycosylation Abolishes Immune Suppression Activity and Induces Breast Cancer Tumor Regression

Michelle Thieu Introduction. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women worldwide. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype that lacks estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 proteins, but expresses higher PD-L1 levels1,2. Patients with TNBC have a worse prognosis compared to patients with other subtypes3.…
Cancer Immunology

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Activation/Proliferation via PD-1/PD-L1 in Fibrotic Conditions such as Systemic Sclerosis.

James Risinger Introduction. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated that is uncommon, but has a high morbidity and mortality1. The common clinical presentation of SSc includes perioral soft tissue loss, sclerodactyly, facial¬†telangiectasis, dilated nail-fold capillaries, extensive¬†calcinosis cutis1. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and the…
Immunology Respiratory Stem Cells

The Expression of Staphylococcal Compliment Inhibitor (SCIN) by Staphylococcus aureus and Its Role in Evasion of the Innate Immune System

William Powell Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal bacterium but can become pathogenic and results in over 1 million skin and soft tissue infections alone in the U.S as well as endocarditis, sepsis, musculoskeletal infections, and toxic shock syndrome1-2. S. aureus uses a variety of virulence factors and defense…
Immunology Microbiology

Microglial Polarization into M1 and M2 Phenotypes: A New Mechanistic Target for Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Treatment

Elias Perli Introduction: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a change in normal brain function caused by an external insult. More than 3 million people in the United States suffer a TBI annually, accounting for around 300,000 hospitalizations and 50,000 fatalities per year.1,4 One notable sequela of TBI is Posttraumatic Epilepsy…
Immunology Neuroscience Psychiatry

Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis By Altering Th17/Treg Ratio

Amisha Patel Introduction: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in the joints that negatively impacts bone constitution, mobility, and overall quality of life.1 The presence of helper T cells (Th17) cells, and downregulation of regulatory T cells (Treg) cells, in inflammation sites, is a prominent feature of Rheumatoid…
Immunology Inflammation Stem Cells

The Role of miRNA Influence on Tumor Associated Macrophages Polarization and Its Effects in Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance

Heidi Pargas Introduction: Ovarian cancer is a form of highly metastatic cancer that affects women aged 50-60 years old with Ashkenazi Jewish, Icelandic, or French decent1,2. Factors leading to the development of ovarian cancer are increased repeat of ovulation due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing DNA damage, and/or mutations…
Cancer Immunology

DNMT-Mediated Pathways in the Progression, Immune Regulation, and Drug Resistance of Multiple Myeloma Indicate the Potential of DNA Methylation Inhibitors

Lynnsey McLain ¬†Introduction. Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells in the bone marrow, resulting in the excessive production of non-functional immunoglobulins.1 The incidence of multiple myeloma in the US is approximately 4 per 100,000 people, which accounts for more than 10% of all hematological malignancies and 1% of…
Cancer Immunology

The Relationship Between Regulatory T Cells (CD4+/CD25/ FOXP3) and Abnormal Lymphangiogenesis in the Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia

Ana Mathew Introduction: Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading hypertensive disorder of pregnancy affecting approximately 5-10% of pregnant mothers. 1-3 Despite its prevalence, the exact mechanism causing PE remains elusive.3 In previous experimental models of PE, there has been evidence of deficiencies in regulatory T cell (Treg) counts leading to excessive…
Immunology Reproduction