Renin-Angiotensin System Induced Production of TNF-α Mediates the Exaggerated Activation of M1 Macrophages and Further Pathogenesis in Diabetic Nephropathy

Braden Sims Introduction. Improper management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can lead to the progression of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN), which is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in most developed countries, including the United States.1 Progression of DN and worsening renal function have been strongly associated with the interplay and…
Immunology Renal Genitourinary

The Role of Polycystin 1 and Polycystin 2 (PC1/PC2) in Calcium Intake and Pathogenesis of Autosomal Dominant Kidney Disease

Tarek Dawamne Introduction. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common potentially lethal single gene disorder. ADPKD is often associated with renal cysts that cause increased kidney malfunction such as hematuria, flank pain, kidney stones, carcinoma, in addition to other cardiovascular abnormalities1.  Methods. Many sources were reviewed to…
Featured Abstracts Renal Genitourinary