Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Regulatory Control of miR-153 on Nuclear Factor I A/B in the Pathogenesis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Lokeshwar S. Bhenderu Introduction: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term to describe the continuum of disorders due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)1,2. Estimates show that FASD affects 1.1 to 4.8% of school-aged children in the United States1. FASD leads to a range of clinical presentations from craniofacial…
Development Neuroscience

The Differing Effects of Buprenorphine Compared to Methadone on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome as a Treatment in Pregnant Women Concurrently Abusing Opioids

Tiffany Rudzitis  Introduction. Opioid abuse in pregnant women has become a prevalent public health concern as reported cases have increased 333% from 1.5 per 1000 deliveries in 1999 to 6.5 per 1000 deliveries in 2014.2 One of many consequences of opioid abuse during pregnancy is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS…
Development

The Role of DNA Methylation on the OPRM1 Gene Induced by Chronic Opioid Exposure in-utero in Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome

Gillian Jolly Introduction: Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) is caused by chronic exposure to opioids in-utero, which causes a physiologic dependence on the opioids, and when exposure is abruptly stopped after birth, the neonate experiences withdrawal symptoms such as hyperthermia, tachycardia, tremors, vomiting, sleep deprivation, and hyperirritability1,2. NOWS prevalence has…
Development Neuroscience

Neurodevelopmental Consequences Due to Decreased Placental Transfer of Maternal Docosahexaenoic Fatty Acid to Fetus in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Marleini Ilanga Introduction. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is expected to rise alongside the epidemic of obesity.1 In GDM women, there is a deficiency in the maternal-fetal transport of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA),2,3,4 a major structural element of the brain that plays an essential role in fetal neurodevelopment.2 …
Development Featured Abstracts Neuroscience

Placental CpG Methylation on HPA Axis Genes Caused by Conflict-Zone Stress

Catherine Mancilla Introduction. When pregnant people experience stress, the glucocorticoids they produce to manage their own stress response cross the placenta and enact epigenetic changes on fetal neurodevelopment.1-4 These epigenetic changes include CpG methylation and are prominent in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis,1-4 leading to altered responses to stress throughout the…
Development Endocrinology

Dysfunction of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis in Prader-Willi Syndrome: An emerging understanding of pertinent genetic and molecular players

Brooke Evans Introduction. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is the leading syndromic cause of obesity.1  The syndrome is caused by non-expression of paternally imprinted genes on chromosome 15 (15q11.2-13) and was the first human disorder linked to genomic imprinting.2 The minimal critical deletion chromosomal domain for PWS contains a non-coding RNA SNORD116…
Development

Alteration and Characterization of Exosomes in Preeclampsia

Marisa Pinson  Introduction.  Preeclampsia (PE) is defined by new onset hypertension and proteinuria by ≥20 weeks of gestation.1-4 PE occurs in 2-5% of pregnancies and is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality globally[1]. Currently, the only treatment for PE is delivery of the placenta. The mechanisms behind…
Development