Early life exposure to soy affects breast cancer susceptibility through regulation of ER and cytokines

Bailey King  Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in women in the US.  Studies have found significant differences in the microbial composition between breast cancer patients and non-breast cancer patients.1 The diet affects breast cancer risk through multiple mechanisms, including estrogen and cytokines. Estrogens influence mammary gland…
Cancer Nutrition

The Role of TGF-β3 on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis and the Potential for Therapeutic Use in Osteoarthritis

Peter Duong Osteoarthritis (OA), currently the most common form of arthritis, is a progressive degenerative disease affecting the joint cartilage and surrounding joint infrastructure1,2. Treatments for OA are limited to pain relief and functional rehabilitation1,2. Regeneration of cartilage in the affected joint(s) provide potential solutions to reverse degeneration of joint…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Role of Matrix Metalloproteases (MMP) Inhibitors in Decreasing Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulation of Inflammatory Response during Ischemic Stroke

Ashmi Patel Introduction. Stroke outco me is dependent on several factors including the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs).2  In ischemia, MMP-2 and MMP-9 degrade claudin-5, which facilitates the increased permeability of the BBB and decrease in tight junction proteins (TJPs).2  MMP-9 cleaves ZO-1 and degrades…
Cardiology Inflammation

The Role of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy in Treatment of Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis by Immunomodulating the Treg and Th17 Balance

Dariusz Mrugala Introduction.  Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease which primarily affects the distal articular joints, and especially the hands.1  The interaction of heritable risk factors like HLA-DR04, and environmental risk factors such as smoking, promote a loss of immune tolerance for self-antigens which leads to immune…
Immunology Stem Cells

Role of the Tumor Suppressor Gene p53 in Pathogenesis of Maladaptive Cardiac Hypertrophy Following a Pressure-Overloaded State

Amelia Khoo Introduction.  Heart disease and its resulting pathology is the leading cause of death worldwide.1 Cardiovascular mortality can result from overwork of tissue following pressure-overloaded states such as chronic systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and aortic stenosis.  Two of the manifestations of  these disease states are maladaptive hypertrophy of the…
Cardiology