Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Activation/Proliferation via PD-1/PD-L1 in Fibrotic Conditions such as Systemic Sclerosis.

James Risinger Introduction. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated that is uncommon, but has a high morbidity and mortality1. The common clinical presentation of SSc includes perioral soft tissue loss, sclerodactyly, facial telangiectasis, dilated nail-fold capillaries, extensive calcinosis cutis1. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and the…
Immunology Respiratory Stem Cells

The Role of WNT5a as a Regulator of Cystic Airspace Enlargement in Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Ashley Kidwell Introduction. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, lymphatic disease that affects 5-9 million women of child-bearing age.1,2 This is the second leading cause of mortality in women with tuberous sclerosis.3 Pulmonary LAM begins with a loss of function mutation in tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2).1 This removes its…
Featured Abstracts Respiratory

The Underlying Mechanisms of Thoracic Radiation Therapy Induced Lung Diseases: Extracellular Adenosine Production by CD73

Tasfia Rouf Introduction: The lungs fall in the irradiation field for several thoracic cancer therapies. Radiation induced lung injury can cause acute radiation pneumonitis in the early phases of treatment and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis during later phases. Damage to normal lung tissue plays a large role in dose limitation for…
Respiratory

Assessing Endotypes of Asthma Including IL-33 and IRAK-1 (IL-R-Associated Kinase)

Jonathan Lutgens Introduction. Asthma is a complex disease associated with airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and bronchoconstriction1. In older literature, asthma was seen as simply an IgE-mast cell mediated response. However, recent studies have had a greater focus on the different endotypes (subtypes) of asthma. This is significant because future treatment…
Featured Abstracts Inflammation Respiratory

Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Regulation of NF-kB and Nerve Growth Factor Expression Resulting in Airway Hyperresponsiveness

Abigail Bourland Introduction. The dangers of tobacco smoke are well known in today’s world.1, 2, 3 Cigarette smoking has many adverse effects, some including, airway hyperresponsiveness, altered tissue structure, and more.1 Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is the constriction of airway smooth muscle cells and is a hallmark of asthma.1, 4 Understanding…
Respiratory

Paracrine factors and mitochondrial transfer from mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate acute respiratory distress syndrome

Amanda Edinger Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lung condition characterized by bilateral lung infiltrates that results in hypoxia. ARDS can be secondary to a variety of disease processes or direct lung damage, however, the disease is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage leading to inefficient oxygen exchange between…
Respiratory Stem Cells