Inhibition of PDE4 and PI3Kδ in Addition to Stimulation of Nuclear Hormone Receptor PPAR in Emphysema Caused By Smoking

Haani Tai Introduction. Smoking-related emphysema induces a disruption to many cellular signaling pathways especially related to inflammation. With inhibition of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) showing promising results for reducing inflammation as well as agonizing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) to induce an anti-inflammatory response and prevent a proinflammatory response.1 Methods. Two…
Engineering Medicine Respiratory

Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Michael Biskup Introduction. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory reaction of the lungs to cellular damage. ARDS commonly develops after trauma, infection, pleuritis, and aspiration. Hypoxemic respiratory failure is a defining characteristic. In the beginning stages of ARDS, the body releases inflammatory mediators such as IL-1. Neutrophils then…
Engineering Medicine Respiratory Stem Cells

Exploration of Novel Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Inhabited Cystic Fibrosis Patients

Karan Hooda Introduction. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which there is a deletion of F508 in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR).1 This leads to mucus buildup and dehydration of respiratory airway surfaces, providing the optimal environment for pathogens to inhabit.2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a…
Microbiology Respiratory

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Activation/Proliferation via PD-1/PD-L1 in Fibrotic Conditions such as Systemic Sclerosis.

James Risinger Introduction. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated that is uncommon, but has a high morbidity and mortality1. The common clinical presentation of SSc includes perioral soft tissue loss, sclerodactyly, facial telangiectasis, dilated nail-fold capillaries, extensive calcinosis cutis1. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and the…
Immunology Respiratory Stem Cells

The Role of WNT5a as a Regulator of Cystic Airspace Enlargement in Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Ashley Kidwell Introduction. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, lymphatic disease that affects 5-9 million women of child-bearing age.1,2 This is the second leading cause of mortality in women with tuberous sclerosis.3 Pulmonary LAM begins with a loss of function mutation in tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2).1 This removes its…
Featured Abstracts Respiratory

The Underlying Mechanisms of Thoracic Radiation Therapy Induced Lung Diseases: Extracellular Adenosine Production by CD73

Tasfia Rouf Introduction: The lungs fall in the irradiation field for several thoracic cancer therapies. Radiation induced lung injury can cause acute radiation pneumonitis in the early phases of treatment and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis during later phases. Damage to normal lung tissue plays a large role in dose limitation for…
Respiratory

Assessing Endotypes of Asthma Including IL-33 and IRAK-1 (IL-R-Associated Kinase)

Jonathan Lutgens Introduction. Asthma is a complex disease associated with airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and bronchoconstriction1. In older literature, asthma was seen as simply an IgE-mast cell mediated response. However, recent studies have had a greater focus on the different endotypes (subtypes) of asthma. This is significant because future treatment…
Featured Abstracts Inflammation Respiratory