The Role of TGF-β3 on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis and the Potential for Therapeutic Use in Osteoarthritis

Peter Duong Osteoarthritis (OA), currently the most common form of arthritis, is a progressive degenerative disease affecting the joint cartilage and surrounding joint infrastructure1,2. Treatments for OA are limited to pain relief and functional rehabilitation1,2. Regeneration of cartilage in the affected joint(s) provide potential solutions to reverse degeneration of joint…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

The Role of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy in Treatment of Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis by Immunomodulating the Treg and Th17 Balance

Dariusz Mrugala Introduction.  Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease which primarily affects the distal articular joints, and especially the hands.1  The interaction of heritable risk factors like HLA-DR04, and environmental risk factors such as smoking, promote a loss of immune tolerance for self-antigens which leads to immune…
Immunology Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Suppress Cartilage Degradation via A WNT5A-Dependent Mechanism: Implications for Osteoarthritis Therapy

Kenneth Sims IV Introduction.  Osteoarthritis (OA) is a “wear-and-tear” disease in which synovial joints, such as the knee or shoulder, degenerate over time. This disease can cause significant pain and immobility, and there is a need for therapy beyond symptomatic management.  Within the OA joint, chondrocytes lose the ability to…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

The Immunosuppressive Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Through Induction of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via FLT3L

Sabina Norova  Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder occurring in 20-150 cases per 100,000 population.1 SLE is increasingly prevalent in people of African ancestry and it usually affects women of reproductive age, with a female-to-male ratio being 9:1.1 In SLE, all pathways lead to production of endogenous…
Immunology Stem Cells

Use of Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Form Scaffold-Free Tissue Engineered Construct to Promote Repair of Knee Chondral Lesions to Prevent Development of Osteoarthritis

Victoria Hamilton  Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the world (global prevalence 3.8%) and significantly contributes to disability globally.1–3 OA of the knee (KOA) has the highest incidence in the body, with a lifetime risk of approximately 45%.3 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are heterogenous stem cells…
Featured Abstracts Inflammation Orthopedics Stem Cells

Gli1+ Mediated Bone Repair Mechanisms: The Role of Gli1+ Mesenchymal Stem Cells within Calvarial Sutures in Craniofacial Bone Repair

Nicole Griggs  Introduction. Craniofacial bones, including the bones of the face and calvarium, develop via intramembranous ossification due to the presence of little bone marrow1,2. Undifferentiated mesenchyme intervenes between calvarial bones to form sutures that remain active as sites of bone formation1,2. A critical sized defect will not heal without…
Featured Abstracts Orthopedics Stem Cells

The Role of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Hydrogels in Facilitating and Promoting Angiogenesis in Response to Ischemia

Kevin Varghese  Introduction. Ischemia is the blockage of arterial supply to live tissue, and prolonged ischemia leads to various types of tissue necrosis1,2, which occurs in response to the release of cytokines. Angiogenesis is a response to ischemia, which is the growth of new vasculature. This process helps replenish the…
Cardiology Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Survival of Pancreatic Beta Cells Via the Induction of Cellular Signaling Pathways: Akt and Wnt4-Beta-Catenin

Kirby James Taylor Introduction. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a heterogeneous disorder effecting 1 and 300 Americans characterized by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, resulting in an insulin deficiency [1]. Beta cells with immune infiltration from CD4+ T cells express specific HLA class II proteins, that cause T-cell…
Endocrinology Stem Cells