Dysregulation of DNA Methylation Profiles in Neural Stem Cells: A Consequence of Ethanol Exposure

Sasha Burrowes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are leading non-genetic causes of neurodevelopmental disabilities in the US and worldwide1. Acting as a teratogen, ethanol has been shown to drastically change the developmental course of maturing neural stem cells in treated mouse NSCs via alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and […]

Future Use of Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering: Understanding How Mechanotransduction Modulates the Differentiation of Stem Cells

Eun Yoon Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of mortality in Western countries.1 Vascular endothelial injury may lead to the development of atherosclerosis. An immediate restoration of vascular endothelial lining is critical for the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular diseases.2,3 However, current solutions fail to achieve the desired reendothelization. Previous studies injected mesenchymal stem cells […]

Regeneration of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Mass Using Embryonic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Alesha White Introduction. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune condition that depletes b cell mass and insulin production thus rendering patients incapable of regulating glucose levels1-4. Patients often present with symptoms between the ages of 5 and 7 and over time, T1DM is noted for causing multi-organ failure2-3. In 2016, T1DM was noted […]

The application of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction

Luke Villamaria  Introduction.  The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of four major ligaments of the knee and plays an important role in stability of the knee upon movement.  ACL rupture is a common sports injury with a  prevalence estimated to be 1 in 3500 in the United States.1 Surgical reconstruction using soft tissue autografts, including […]

Current and future use of stem cells for orthopedic tissue engineering: Autologous stem cells from adipose stromal vascular fraction in non-unions.

Patrick Tansey  Introduction: The long-bone fracture healing process requires a hematoma formation, callus formation, angiogenesis and remodeling of the bony-callus over years with osteoblast and osteoclast activity.1 Bone regeneration should occur spontaneously after initial intervention, however up to 10% of all fractures fail to complete healing and are classified as non-union.2 Non-unions cause persistent pain […]

The Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

Adam Olson  Introduction. Damage to articular cartilage often results from physical trauma or age-related abrasion.4 In all cases, however, it leads to constant pain and functional limitations, and can predispose individuals to osteoarthritis.1,2,4 Once damaged, the poorly vascularized tissue is slow to repair, and often heals improperly.1-4 Many of the current treatments are centered on […]

Using Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) to Treat Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Secondary to Pneumonia

Lan-Anh Nguyen Introduction.  Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute form of diffuse lung injury occurring in patients with a predisposing risk factor, one of which being bacterial pneumonia induced by E. coli.1 While the incidence of nosocomial ARDS has decreased due to preventative measures, treatment is still targeted only to treating symptoms of […]

The protective and reparative role of paracrine activity on mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair and angiogenesis in myocardial infarction

Christopher Morin  Introduction: Development of myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when a maturing plaque fissures and exposes its lipid rich core to components of circulating blood. The process ends with formation of an acute thrombus over the plaque with closure of the vessel1. Initially it was thought that cardiomyocytes were not able to divide and scars […]

Neurogenesis in Neurodegenerative Disease- The Possibility of Neural Stem Cells in Alzheimer’s Treatment

Megan Marcom  Introduction: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia and neurodegeneration that occurs in middle to late life, and its prevalence is expected to double within 20 years as average lifespan increases.1 Pathologically, AD is characterized by widespread synaptic and neuronal loss, inflammation, and two hallmark protein aggregates: plaques composed of […]