The application of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction

Luke Villamaria  Introduction.  The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of four major ligaments of the knee and plays an important role in stability of the knee upon movement.  ACL rupture is a common sports injury with a  prevalence estimated to be 1 in 3500 in the United States.1 Surgical reconstruction using soft tissue autografts, including […]

Current and future use of stem cells for orthopedic tissue engineering: Autologous stem cells from adipose stromal vascular fraction in non-unions.

Patrick Tansey  Introduction: The long-bone fracture healing process requires a hematoma formation, callus formation, angiogenesis and remodeling of the bony-callus over years with osteoblast and osteoclast activity.1 Bone regeneration should occur spontaneously after initial intervention, however up to 10% of all fractures fail to complete healing and are classified as non-union.2 Non-unions cause persistent pain […]

Improving Osteoconduction and Osteoinduction of Bone Grafts Utilizing Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Proteins with Scaffolding in Non-Union Fractures

Chad Smith  Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability in the United States, with an estimated 5.5 million fractures occurring annually16. Every bone fracture has the potential to develop into a nonunion fracture, with an occurrence rate of 5-10%16. Current bone grafting procedures for the treatment of nonunion fractures are undergoing a transition […]

The Effects of Sclerostin Depletion in Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma syndrome

Malina Patel  Introduction. Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused  by a loss-of-function mutation in the low-density lipoprotein related protein 5 (LRP5) gene[1]. OPPG is characterized with early onset of osteoporosis, low bone mineral density, and eye abnormalities leading to blindness (pseudoglioma). LRP5 is a cell-surface receptor that activates the canonical […]

The Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

Adam Olson  Introduction. Damage to articular cartilage often results from physical trauma or age-related abrasion.4 In all cases, however, it leads to constant pain and functional limitations, and can predispose individuals to osteoarthritis.1,2,4 Once damaged, the poorly vascularized tissue is slow to repair, and often heals improperly.1-4 Many of the current treatments are centered on […]

The use of co-cultures and in situ tissue engineering as a means of improving angiogenesis in bone tissue engineering.

Wade Nedderman Introduction: Bone disorders have trended upwards recently, especially in populations plagued by obesity and the aging baby boomer population1. Autografts are the current gold standard for bone replacement as a result of its histocompatibility and non-immunogenic properties1. Autografts do have limitations though, including donor site deformity and potentially lack of required donor volume […]

Chikungunya Virus: Pathogenesis of Persistent Arthralgia and Chronic Joint Disease

Brendan Mueller Introduction.  Chikungunya disease is an acute-febrile illness, caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is debilitating, arthritic, and transmitted by mosquitoes in the genus Aedes1.  Within the past 15 years, there has been a re-emergence of CHIKV outbreaks in temperate regions, as opposed to tropical regions in which the disease is endemic and […]

Orthobiologics and the Role of Osteoinductive Proteins in Bone Repair: With Emphasis on Human Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMPs)

Garret Hisle  Introduction: The process of bone repair and the healing of bone fractures caused by trauma or disease has a significant clinical relevance due to the limited effectiveness in current treatment options. Among the Osteoinductive growth factors used for bone tissue stimulation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most widely studied (5). BMPs induce […]