Orthobiologics and the Role of Osteoinductive Proteins in Bone Repair: With Emphasis on Human Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMPs)

Garret Hisle  Introduction: The process of bone repair and the healing of bone fractures caused by trauma or disease has a significant clinical relevance due to the limited effectiveness in current treatment options. Among the Osteoinductive growth factors used for bone tissue stimulation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most widely studied (5). BMPs induce […]

Tissue Engineering, a useful addition to traditional surgical repair of the peroneal tendons?

Christopher Melton  It is estimated that 50 million sports injuries occur each year in the United States and the most common of those athletic injuries are ankle injuries1.  The peroneal brevis and peroneal longus tendons are among the most frequently injured ankle tendons and are a source of chronic ankle pain2.  Traditionally, peroneal tendon ruptures […]

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 for Enhanced Bone Healing: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Emerging Research

Joshua L. Crapps Introduction. Delayed union and nonunion bone fractures fail to fuse by 6 or 9 months post-injury, respectively, with no progression for an additional 3 months in those classified as nonunion.1 Of the 7.9 million annual fractures in the United States, 600,000 exhibit delayed union and 100,000 progress to nonunion.1-3 The current standard […]

Emerging Technologies in Bone Repair and Spine Fusion: Stem Cell Strategies

Kathleen F. Lundquist  Introduction. Spondylolisthesis is defined as the forward slippage of a vertebra without rupture of the posterior arc, usually inducing lumbar canal stenosis with a prevalence estimated at 2.7% in males and 8.1% in females2. Spondylolisthesis is frequently treated via a spinal fusion surgical procedure if the degree of slippage is severe or […]

The Use of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Aid in Tendon-Bone Healing Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgical Repair

Zachary Grant Introduction. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears have an incidence of between 36.9 and 60.9 per 100,000 persons/year, resulting in approximately 200,000 injuries annually.5 They most commonly occur in athletes involved in sports that require contact and/or sharp, sudden movements.2 The current method of repair involves surgically removing the damaged ACL and replacing it […]