ROS Production by Dysfunctional Mitochondria Leads to Cell Senescence and Bone Aging

Roma Bhandarkar  Introduction. Some damaged cells display cellular senescence, which is a stress response that results in permanent cell cycle arrest 2. Senescent cells secrete chemicals known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that drive pathologies associated with aging, such as osteoarthritis 3. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by degeneration…
Aging Orthopedics

Emerging technologies for modulating mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation in tissue engineering constructs for use in spinal fusion procedures

Rahul Ghosh Introduction: Low-back pain, commonly associated with age-related degenerative disc disease (DDD), is a major healthcare burden in the United States with an estimated 60% – 90% lifetime prevalence 1. Spinal fusion is the standard of treatment for advanced stages of DDD that are unresponsive to physical therapy or…
Orthopedics Stem Cells

Evolving Utilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Delivery Scaffolds in Osteoarthritis

John Schmidt Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that causes pain, decreased range of motion, osteophyte formation, and aberrant bone remodeling in over 27 million adults in the United States alone1,2. Numerous interacting growth factors and inflammatory cytokines modulate the various pathways that lead to chondrocyte hypertrophy…
Immunology Orthopedics Stem Cells