Relating the Efficacy of Rigid Braces in Treating Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis to Patient Quality of Life in Brace

Gabrielle Rogie Introduction. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, greater than 10* Cobb angle, without any underlying cause. Scoliosis presents as an abnormal shape of the back and waistline, uneven shoulders, and rib protrusion when instructed to bend forward. Further diagnosis is…
Engineering Medicine Orthopedics

Mechanical Load-Induced Articular Collagen Remodeling as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Alexandra Ramos Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting joints. Women are twice as likely to develop RA, and increasing age is another risk factor1. RA has a multifactorial etiology but is characterized by autoantibodies that target citrullinated proteins, leading to inflammatory cells infiltrating and secreting…
Engineering Medicine Immunology Inflammation Orthopedics

The Role of Biogenetics for PRP Injections in Lateral Epicondylitis

Krishna Anand Introduction. Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is caused by the overuse of the wrist extensors, typically from repetitive movements with the forearm in the pronated position1. Treatment options for patients with aggravating and persistent LE are limited non-operatively1. Current modalities of treatment include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, and physical…
Engineering Medicine Inflammation Orthopedics

Integration of Metals via 3D Printing to Promote Bone Regeneration and Repair in Patients with Osteoporosis

Muhammad Nabeel Akram Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disorder in which bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone durability are all diminished, and the patients’ BMD T-score is less than 2.5 standard deviations.1 Worldwide, osteoporosis causes more than 8.9 million fractures annually, which results in an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds.2…
Engineering Medicine Orthopedics

The Regulation of Macrophage Polarization through Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Aniruth Srinivasaraghavan Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the irreversible degeneration and dysfunction of articular cartilage and adjacent tissues that eventually leads to joint destructions1,2. Non-pharmacological treatment such as exercise, weight loss, as walking aids as indicated are recommended for first line of treatment. Exercise therapy is recommended for helping to decrease…
Immunology Inflammation Orthopedics

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Improve Achilles Tendon Healing Through Modulation of the M1/M2 Macrophage Ratio

Daniel Lindahl Introduction: Achilles tendon ruptures are extremely prevalent in both athletes and the general populace, accounting for 20% of all large tendon ruptures.1 Both surgical and non-surgical treatment are aimed at approximating tendon edges to promote healing, however re-rupture rates remain high due to unresolved inflammation.1,2 Macrophages play a…
Immunology Orthopedics Stem Cells

Biodegradable Magnesium Screw Implants Decrease Inflammatory Response and Enhance Osteogenesis in Orthopedic Traumas

Swati Iyer Introduction: There is a high national burden of orthopedic trauma, which often leads to the use of fixation devices in orthopedic surgical procedures1-2. Previous treatment options for femoral fractures included inserting stainless steel, titanium alloys or cobalt-chromium alloy screws into the bone at the site of the fracture,…
Inflammation Orthopedics

Mechanical Vibration Induces Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Osteoblasts at the Expense of Adipocyte Differentiation through Activation of Wnt Pathway and Inhibition of PPARgamma Nuclear Hormone Receptor in Osteoporotic Bone

Dakota Doucet Introduction. Osteoporosis (OP) in post-menopausal women causes abnormally low bone mineral density, bone fragility, and high bone marrow adipocyte content. With 54 million currently afflicted in the United States and another 120 million predicted to suffer from OP by 2050 in China1, substantial efforts have been directed towards…
Orthopedics Stem Cells