Placental CpG Methylation on HPA Axis Genes Caused by Conflict-Zone Stress

Catherine Mancilla Introduction. When pregnant people experience stress, the glucocorticoids they produce to manage their own stress response cross the placenta and enact epigenetic changes on fetal neurodevelopment.1-4 These epigenetic changes include CpG methylation and are prominent in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis,1-4 leading to altered responses to stress throughout the…
Development Endocrinology

The role of short chain fatty acids in alleviating anxiety by reducing gut corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRFR) expression and systemic inflammation

Lena Ayari Introduction. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the top causes of mental illness in the U.S., affecting around 3.1% of the population.1 Current pharmaceutical therapies are associated with unpleasant and potentially harmful side effects, and only around 45-55% of those affected achieve remission following treatment.1,2 Studies have…
Endocrinology Featured Abstracts Inflammation Neuroscience

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Survival of Pancreatic Beta Cells Via the Induction of Cellular Signaling Pathways: Akt and Wnt4-Beta-Catenin

Kirby James Taylor Introduction. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a heterogeneous disorder effecting 1 and 300 Americans characterized by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, resulting in an insulin deficiency [1]. Beta cells with immune infiltration from CD4+ T cells express specific HLA class II proteins, that cause T-cell…
Endocrinology Stem Cells

Diabetic Wound Healing: New Targets and Approaches

Pouriska Kivanany Introduction. Diabetes is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels, decreased blood circulation, and reduced immune response.1, 2 Diabetic foot ulcers are the primary complication with diabetes and are responsible for 84% of diabetic lower leg amputations.3 In normal wound healing, there is an interplay between cells, extracellular matrix, and biochemical/biophysical…
Endocrinology Featured Abstracts

Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells attenuate the immune response in Type 1 Diabetes by inducing regulatory dendritic cells

Ather Adnan Introduction: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell driven destruction of pancreatic β-cells in the islets of Langerhans and resultant hyperglycemia1. The pathogenesis of T1D involves presentation of normally cryptic β-cell autoantigens and aberrant activation rather than suppression of immune cells1,2. The only…
Endocrinology Immunology

The Role of Oxytocin in Relation to the HPA axis and Differential Receptor Methylation Patterns in the Prognosis and Prevention of Postpartum Depression

Allyson Jones Introduction: Postpartum depression, which effects as many as 30% of mothers, impairs mother-infant interactions and can have a profound effect on both child development and motherhood.1 Oxytocin is a key regulatory hormone that is known to buffer stress reactivity, support positive mood, and promote healthy mothering behaviors.2 While…
Endocrinology Neuroscience

The Role of Obesity in Increased Risk of Type II Diabetes

Siin Park Introduction. Danger of obesity lies in secondary pathogenesis, and Type II Diabetes (T2D) is a predominant, consequential issue.1 T2D is marked by insufficient insulin production; obesity is an energy imbalance, leading to chronic oxidative stress and overactivated mitochondrial ETC.1 This forms excess by-product ROS and reduces cyclin-dependent kinase…
Endocrinology