The Role of Early Pregnancy’s Downregulation of Hormone Responsive Cells and Wnt Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Protection

Haley Griffin  Introduction: Breast cancer is the predominant cancer and second cause of death due to women. The mammary epithelium undergoes extensive changes throughout a women’s life, and these developmental alterations are associated with progesterone and estrogen. As a result, ER+/PR+ subtype breast cancers are especially linked to reproductive risk factors. The Wnt signaling cascade […]

Induction of regulatory T-cells to treat Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Gina Do Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease where the host’s immune system attacks pancreatic β-cells, causing insufficient insulin production and, therefore, hyperglycemia1. Symptomatic progression of T1D often occurs during childhood and adolescence, with new diagnoses estimated at almost 90,000 children annually worldwide1. There is no absolute cure but treatment currently […]

The Role of Estrogen in the Renin-Angiotensin Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Neha Ali  Introduction. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in men and women in the USA. However, the risk of developing CV disease increases among women following menopause5. With increasing life expectancy, women may spend more than three decades in this postmenopausal state, increasing the likelihood of metabolic diseases.5,6 Estrogen has a protective […]

The Impact of Intrauterine Nutrition and Epigenetic Modifications on the Development of Obesity and Type II Diabetes

Ammad Khan Introduction.  Nutrition, especially early dietary exposures, plays a critical role in a person’s health throughout their life1.It has been substantiated that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes including those that are commonly attributed to obesity and diabetes2,9,10. Obesity, defined as a BMI greater than 30, has been shown to increase the […]

The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Mediating Obesity

Connie Hsiao  Introduction.  Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive adipose tissue and increases an individual’s risk for health, social and mental issues. Obesity is a major issue in the United States, where more than one-third of Americans are clinically obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2).1 Environmental and genetic factors both affect an individual’s propensity for […]

Mobilizing Regulatory T Cells Against Type I Diabetes

Robert Leonard Introduction: Type I diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease where self-reactive T cells damage insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells resulting in hyperglycemia1. The etiology is unclear but evidence suggests it arises from an environmental trigger with genetic predisposition1. Treatment of T1D, although advancing, still consists of insulin replacement therapy in the face of […]

High Intensity Interval Training as Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Alex Gustafson Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a chronic disease characterized by insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, and impaired GLUT-4 translocation1. T2D has become epidemic in the U.S. as 1/3 of the population is diabetic or pre-diabetic2. These Americans are susceptible to major hyperglycemic related consequences such as strokes, heart attacks, kidney failure, amputations, […]