The Role of Obesity in Increased Risk of Type II Diabetes

Siin Park Introduction. Danger of obesity lies in secondary pathogenesis, and Type II Diabetes (T2D) is a predominant, consequential issue.1 T2D is marked by insufficient insulin production; obesity is an energy imbalance, leading to chronic oxidative stress and overactivated mitochondrial ETC.1 This forms excess by-product ROS and reduces cyclin-dependent kinase…
Endocrinology

Estrogen Receptor Beta Activation as a means of improving ischemic stroke outcomes in post-menopausal women

Rishi Suresh Introduction. Ischemic stroke is a condition in which the brain is abruptly deprived of oxygen, leading to functional deficits. Epidemiologic studies have shown that young women experience strokes less frequently than similarly aged men; however, this trend reverses in post-menopausal women1,2. Based on these trends, researchers hypothesized that…
Cardiology Endocrinology Featured Abstracts

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Type I Diabetes Mellitus

William Shank Introduction. Type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells leading to chronic insufficient insulin production. Lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of these cells, along with circulating islet cell antibodies and anti-insulin antibodies are seen in T1D patients1,2. Treatment of T1D currently…
Endocrinology Immunology Stem Cells

Expression of Pdx-1 on Stem Cells Increases Pancreatic Beta Cell Regeneration in Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Radhika Shah Introduction. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the level of glucose in the blood cannot be maintained. Type I diabetes manifests as an autoimmune disorder, in which the patient’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. When these cells become deficient, insulin production…
Endocrinology Immunology Stem Cells

Targeting Pax4 for α- to β-cell Transdifferentiation: a Promising Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Victor H. Rodríguez Introduction. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease causing chronic inflammation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans affecting β cells and insulin production and yields hyperglycemic states in individuals1. T1DM affects U.S. 3 million people2. Untreated individuals develop retinopathy, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and neuropathy3.…
Endocrinology Inflammation

The Role of Estrogen and Estrogen Receptors in the Development of Parkinson’s Disease and Their Potential as Therapeutic Interventions

Elyssa Berg Introduction.  Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra.  The neuronal loss and dopamine depletion leads to Parkinson’s hallmark symptoms: bradykinesia, resting tremor, and muscle rigidity1.  The existence of sex disparities in PD is well documented2,3.  The prevalence…
Endocrinology Neuroscience

Non-TcR Binding Anti-CD3 Antibodies to Promote Regulatory T Cell Activity: A Cellular Approach to Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

John Nguyen Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, T1D, involves the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β cells5. In the U.S., 3 million individuals, or 3% of the population are affected with 78,000 youths diagnosed annually1. T1d affects glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, leading to polyuria, polydipsia, hyperglycemia, and ketonuria1.…
Endocrinology Immunology

The role of regulatory T cells in Type 1 Diabetes

Farhan Mithani Introduction. Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, hypoinsulinemia, and severely altered glucose homeostasis. 1,2 The destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells prevents insulin secretion and, therefore, prevents insulin from regulating glucose homeostasis. The disease etiology…
Endocrinology Immunology

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a mediator of Diabetic macular edema and anti-vegf alternative routes of treatment

Alejandro Sanchez Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Anti-Vegf drugs current 1st line treatment for DME but are limited to an intraocular route of administration and associated recurring visits to ophthalmologists. Eye is…
Endocrinology