The Use of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Aid in Tendon-Bone Healing Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgical Repair

Zachary Grant Introduction. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears have an incidence of between 36.9 and 60.9 per 100,000 persons/year, resulting in approximately 200,000 injuries annually.5 They most commonly occur in athletes involved in sports that require contact and/or sharp, sudden movements.2 The current method of repair involves surgically removing the damaged ACL and replacing it […]

Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Targeting essential genes as a novel therapy for healthcare-associated pneumonia

Julie England Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of healthcare- and ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP, VAP). This complication produces significant increases in mortality, morbidity, and cost of care.1,2 20% of Pseudomonas pneumonia cases are caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) strains.3 Importantly, the presence of an MDR strain is the most important predictor of inadequate initial […]

The Role of Astrocyte Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy

Kieran Boochoon Introduction: Astrocytes are a subtype of glial cell that have important functions maintaining ion concentrations, water transport, and neurotransmitter levels during neuronal activity.1 Recent studies have implicated that astrocytes could an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Different processes such as astrocytic Kir channels2, aquaporin channels3, gap junctions4, glutamate transporters5,6, and glutamine […]

Intestinal Microbiome & Autism: exploring the contribution of specific microbiome differences (like Clostridium, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Sutterella species) in autism-spectrum disorder children on symptomology

Puja Panwar Introduction. Compared to neurotypical controls, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children more commonly experience hospitalizations with complaints of diarrhea, chronic constipation, and abdominal pain1. Several studies have shown abnormal gut microbiota in children with ASD. Studies using the maternal immune activation (MIA) model look at the offspring of MIA mice. The offspring, which exhibit […]

High Intensity Interval Training as Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Alex Gustafson Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a chronic disease characterized by insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, and impaired GLUT-4 translocation1. T2D has become epidemic in the U.S. as 1/3 of the population is diabetic or pre-diabetic2. These Americans are susceptible to major hyperglycemic related consequences such as strokes, heart attacks, kidney failure, amputations, […]

A gut feeling: the influence of intestinal microbiota by-products in autism spectrum disorders

Ankita Brahmaroutu Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders, with autism at the center of the spectrum. ASDs include impairments in social interaction, communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behavior with no definitive etiology. Children with autism are more than twice as likely to develop gastrointestinal (GI) complaints that begin at […]

Ang-2 and VEGF Inhibition alters tumor associated macrophages and normalizes tumor vasculature in glioblastoma

Tejaswini Reddy  Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and the current standard of treatment of care is surgical resection of tumor(s) followed by external beam irradiation and taking cytotoxic agent temozolomide orally [1-6]. However, many tumors develop resistance to temozolomide, which is why targeted therapies such as a […]

Inflammation and stress in preeclampsia due to microparticles of the endothelium and the trophoblast

Laura Chahin Introduction – The maternal condition preeclampsia currently has an incidence of 3-5%1 and affects both neonates and mothers globally as the most common cause of mortality2. Preeclampsia can be identified beginning at 20 weeks gestation by hypertension, protein present in urine, and, most concerning, damage to additional organs1. Inhibition of spiral artery reformation […]

Targeting Tau Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Disease-Modifying Potential of Tau Immunotherapies

Sarah Fulton Introduction.   Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia with an estimated 5.5 million cases in the US in 2017.1 Current treatments for AD alleviate symptoms, but do nothing to halt or reverse disease progression.2 Novel therapies are desperately needed in order to combat the pathological aggregation of tau protein and […]

Role of Cell Communication and Transient Nanotubules Between Cardiomyocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Myocardial Repair

Jessica Clothier Introduction. Coronary Artery Disease is the number one leading cause of death in the US, and is responsible for 1 in 6 deaths.1 There is a quick system for reperfusion during a myocardial infarction, but there is not yet a solution to the permanent damage of the myocardium. Those who survive an MI […]