Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are best suited for cartilage and bone regeneration

Ikanke-abasi James  Introduction.  Sports injuries, accidental trauma, genetic defects, and aging are the most common causes of damage to articular cartilage and bony tissue. The incidence of hospitalized patient bone fractures is estimated to be 1 million in the United States. Surgery is the leading form of treatment. However, the risks associated with surgery include: […]

Exercise Induced Changes on miRNA Expression and Its Effect on Cardiovascular Disease

Brittney Jackson Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the United States and consume a significant amount of healthcare expenditures8. It is well researched and known that gene expression patterns are substantially altered in cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure5. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that can target […]

The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Mediating Obesity

Connie Hsiao  Introduction.  Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive adipose tissue and increases an individual’s risk for health, social and mental issues. Obesity is a major issue in the United States, where more than one- third of Americans are clinically obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2).[1] Environmental and genetic factors both affect an individual’s propensity […]

Orthobiologics and the Role of Osteoinductive Proteins in Bone Repair: With Emphasis on Human Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMPs)

Garret Hisle  Introduction: The process of bone repair and the healing of bone fractures caused by trauma or disease has a significant clinical relevance due to the limited effectiveness in current treatment options. Among the Osteoinductive growth factors used for bone tissue stimulation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most widely studied (5). BMPs induce […]

Role of Mechanical Forces on Clinical Small Diameter Vascular Graft Tissue Engineering

Wesley Hejl Introduction: Coronary artery disease is a disease involving lipid deposition both intracellularly and extracellularly in the walls of the coronary arteries of the heart1. This disease is a leading cause of death of death both in the United States and worldwide1. The disease progression is well researched and results from initial endothelial injury2. […]

The Role of Early Pregnancy’s Downregulation of Hormone Responsive Cells and Wnt Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Protection

Haley Griffin  Introduction: Breast cancer is the predominant cancer and second cause of death due to women. The mammary epithelium undergoes extensive changes throughout a women’s life, and these developmental alterations are associated with progesterone and estrogen. As a result, ER+/PR+ subtype breast cancers are especially linked to reproductive risk factors. The Wnt signaling cascade […]

Diet Induced Inflammation and Hypertension: High Fat Diet’s link to Disease

Hanna Fanous Introduction. Heart disease caused by hypertension remains the number one cause of death in the United States and predictions made by the American Heart Association project a continuing rise in the ‘Hypertensive Crisis5. So too does obesity seem to rise at a parallel rate as hypertension—does a link between diet, inflammation, and hypertension […]

Mechanisms of Nervous System Damage and Immunological Escape by Zika Virus

Ahmed Ebrahim Introduction. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA flavivirus that is believed to be primarily spread through vector-born transmission such as mosquitos and can cause neurologic illness such as microcephaly.[1] Most adult cases of ZIKV are asymptomatic. Symptomatic adult cases typically present with mild symptoms such as fever and conjunctivitis and resolve within […]